Shamanism

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Shamanism

مُساهمة من طرف lonely wolf في السبت يناير 03, 2009 7:37 pm

Shamanism

Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. A practitioner of shamanism is known as a shaman, pronounced /ˈʃɑːmən/, /ˈʃeɪmən/, (|ˈshämən; ˈshā-|) noun (pl. -man(s)).[1] There are many variations of shamanism throughout the world and several common beliefs are shared by all forms of shamanism. Shamans are intermediaries between the human and spirit worlds. They can treat illness and are capable of entering supernatural realms to provide answers for humans.[2]

Etymology
The term "shaman" originally referred to the traditional healers of Turkic-Mongol areas such as Northern Asia (Siberia) and Mongolia; šamán being the Turkic-Tungus word for such a practitioner and meaning "he or she who knows."[3][4] Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, and indeed is "the only commonly used English word that is a loan from this language".[5]
In contemporary English language usage, shaman has become interchangeable with the older English language pejorative term witch doctor.[who?] This is anthropologically inaccurate, and has raised objections among academics and traditional healers, who assert the word comes from a specific place, people, and set of practices.[citation needed]

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رد: Shamanism

مُساهمة من طرف lonely wolf في السبت يناير 03, 2009 7:40 pm

Beliefs
There are many variations of shamanism throughout the world; and several common beliefs are shared by all forms of shamanism. Common beliefs, identified by Eliade (1964)[2] are the following:

  • Spirits exist and they play important roles both in individual lives and in human society.
  • The shaman can communicate with the spirit world.
  • Spirits can be good or evil.
  • The shaman can treat sickness caused by evil spirits.
  • The shaman can employ trance inducing techniques to incite visionary ecstasy and go on "vision quests".
  • The shaman's spirit can leave the body to enter the supernatural world to search for answers.
  • The shaman evokes animal images as spirit guides, omens, and message-bearers.
  • The shaman can tell the future, scry, throw bones/runes, and perform other varied forms of divination

Shamanism is based on the premise that the visible world is pervaded by invisible forces or spirits which affect the lives of the living.[6] In contrast to organized religions like animism or animatism which are led by priests and which all members of a society practice, shamanism requires individualized knowledge and special abilities. Shaman operate outside established religions, and, traditionally, they operate alone, although some take on an apprentice. Shaman can gather into associations, as Indian tantric practitioners have done.


Function
Shamans perform a variety of functions depending upon their respective cultures:[7] healing;[8][9] leading a sacrifice;[10] preserving the tradition by storytelling and songs;[11] fortune-telling;[12] acting as a psychopomp (literal meaning, “guide of souls”).[13] In some cultures, a shaman may fulfill several functions in one person.[14]
The necromancer in Greek mythology might be considered[citation needed] a shaman as the necromancer could rally spirits and raise the dead to utilize them as slaves, soldiers and tools for divination.
The functions of a shaman may include either guiding to their proper abode the souls of the dead (which may be guided either one-at-a-time or in a cumulative group, depending on culture), and/or curing (healing) of ailments. The ailments may be either purely physical afflictions -- such as disease, which may be cured by flattering, threatening, or wrestling the disease-spirit (sometimes trying all these, sequentially), and which may be completed by displaying some supposedly extracted token of the disease-spirit (displaying this, even if "fraudulent", is supposed to impress the disease-spirit that it has been, or is in the process of being, defeated, so that it will retreat and stay out of the patient's body) --, or else mental (including psychosomatic) afflictions -- such as persistent terror (on account of some frightening experience), which may be likewise cured by similar methods. Usually in most languages a different term, other than the one translated "shaman", is applied to a religious official ("priest") leading sacrificial rites, or to a reconteur ("sage") of traditional lore; there may be more of an overlap in functions (with than of a shaman), however, in the case of an interpreter of omens or of dreams.


Mediator
Shaman act as "mediators" in their culture.[15][16] The shaman is seen as communicating with the spirits on behalf of the community, including the spirits of the dead. In some cultures, this mediator function of the shaman may be illustrated well by some of the shaman's objects and symbols. E.g. among the Selkups, a report mentions sea duck as a spirit-animal: ducks are capable of both flying, and diving underwater, thus they are regarded as belonging to both the upper world and the world underneath.[17] Similarly, the shaman and the jaguar are identified in some Amazonian cultures: the jaguar is capable of moving freely on the ground, in the water, and climbing trees (like the shaman's soul). In some Siberian cultures, it is some water fowl species that are associated to the shaman in a similar way, and the shaman is believed to take on its form.[18]
“The Shaman's Tree” is an image found in several cultures (Yakuts, Dolgans, Evenks, Celts,) as a symbol for mediation. The tree is seen as a being whose roots belong to the world underneath; its trunk belongs to the middle, human-inhabited world; and its top is related to the upper world.[19]


Distinct types of shaman
In some cultures there may be additional types of shaman, who perform more specialized functions. For example, among the Nanai people, a distinct kind of shaman acts as a psychopomp.[20] Other specialized shaman may be distinguished according to the type of spirits, or realms of the spirit world, with which the shaman most commonly interacts. These roles vary among the Nenets, Enets, and Selkup shaman (paper;[21] online[22]). Among Huichol[23] , there are two categories of shaman. This demonstrates the differences among shaman within a single tribe.

lonely wolf
Binbaşı

عدد الرسائل : 1156
العمر : 33
العائلة التركمانية : oğuz Salur
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/03/2008

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